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Protochips Poseidon Select


Protochips Poseidon Select

In-Situ Liquid TEM System

Poseidon Select is the most flexible in-situ liquid electron microscopy system available, and the only one that’s truly EDS compatible. Choose from heating and electrochemistry packages to suit your research.

Liquid thickness can be varied from <50 nanometers to >5 microns, or ultra-thin <150nm liquid layers for high resolution imaging, with a wide variety of liquid microscopy E-chips.

Benefits of in-situ liquid TEM


  • True in-situ quantitative electrochemistry.
  • Resolve small currents in a miniature cell, while imaging and collecting analytical data.
  • Image lithium battery cycling while simultaneously taking electrochemical measurements.

Liquid Heating 

  • Heat liquids directly within the TEM holder.
  • Room temperature up to 100°C.
  • Closed-loop temperature control for stability and accuracy.

EDS Analysis

  • True EDS elemental analysis within a TEM – for the first time.
  • Minimal tilt and maximum count rate, with a large line-of-sight and angle from the sample to the EDS detector.
  • EDS-optimised chips for the high quality data.

Contact us for more information and quotes:
01223 422 269 or

Protochips Poseidon Select

The Poseidon system changes the way we envision biology. It is now possible to study live entities at the nanoscale – truly seeing the world through a new lens.
Dr. Deborah Kelly, Virginia Tech, USA


  • In-situ liquid microscopy
  • Heating and electrochemistry
  • Nanoparticles in liquid
  • Live cells in liquid
  • Batteries and fuel cells – more info
  • …and more


  • Choose heating and electrochemistry packages to suit you
  • Highest quality EDS results – specialist chips available
  • 3 electrodes (WE,CE, RE)
  • 3-port (mixing) TEM holder with integrated electrodes and touch-screen controlled syringe pump
  • Safe and fully approved by microscope manufacturers
Liquid heating package

Liquid heating

Video Examples

Salt Crystallisation at 5fps

Tilt Range Demo: Gold Nanoparticles in Water

Gold Nanoparticles in Water

Gold Nanoparticles Interacting with Beam

Protein Mediated Calcite Formation

Lead Nanoparticle Growth in Microwells

Application Notes

Case Study: In Situ Lithium Dendrite Deposition


A key challenge in lithium-ion battery development is how to minimise the formation of lithium dendrites on the electrode surface after repeated charge/discharge cycles. Areas of “dead” lithium no longer contribute to ion transport. This reduces battery capacity and increases the likelihood of a short circuit between anode and cathode.


Researchers used the Protochips Poseidon Select to observe the charge/discharge process of lithium-ion batteries in solution using scanning TEM (STEM). A series of real-time images of the working electrode was acquired, while cycling the electrochemical potential of the cell from 0 to -4 volts.

At the start of the first cycle, the surface of the platinum working electrode was pristine, with the lithium fully dissolved in the electrolyte solution. As the battery was charged, lithium deposits appeared on the surface of the working electrode. Surface roughening was observed, due to the uneven nature of the deposits. Discharging the battery during the first cycle reduced the lithium on the electrode surface, but the lithium dendrites remained on the surface of the electrode and did not redissolve in the electrolyte.

Lithium dendrite deposition

After more charge cycles, the electrochemical cell became more and more irreversible, with more lithium dendrites and “dead” regions in the STEM images. Characteristic peaks at -2 and -2.5 volts could be seen in the CV curves, indicating alloying between the platinum electrode and the lithium in the electrolyte.

The Poseidon Select enabled simultaneous imaging and electrochemical data collection, to successfully image the formation of lithium dendrites during battery charge/discharge cycles.

In-Situ TEM: The New Frontier for Liquid Chemistry

Watch a 1 hour recorded webinar about how leading scientists in battery research and functional materials are using liquid cell TEM:

Mimicking the Human Body

1 hour recorded webinar about how researchers are using liquid cell EM to study complex transitions in biological samples in their natural, hydrated state:

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