Protochips Poseidon Select
In-Situ Liquid TEM System
Poseidon Select is the most flexible in-situ liquid electron microscopy system available, and the only one that’s truly EDS compatible. Choose from heating and electrochemistry packages to suit your research.
Liquid thickness can be varied from <50 nanometers to >5 microns, or ultra-thin <150nm liquid layers for high resolution imaging, with a wide variety of liquid microscopy E-chips.
- True in-situ quantitative electrochemistry.
- Resolve small currents in a miniature cell, while imaging and collecting analytical data.
- Image lithium battery cycling while simultaneously taking electrochemical measurements.
- Heat liquids directly within the TEM holder.
- Room temperature up to 100°C.
- Closed-loop temperature control for stability and accuracy.
- True EDS elemental analysis within a TEM – for the first time.
- Minimal tilt and maximum count rate, with a large line-of-sight and angle from the sample to the EDS detector.
- EDS-optimised chips for the high quality data.
Salt Crystallisation at 5fps
Tilt Range Demo: Gold Nanoparticles in Water
Gold Nanoparticles in Water
Gold Nanoparticles Interacting with Beam
Protein Mediated Calcite Formation
Lead Nanoparticle Growth in Microwells
- Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM) of Eukaryotic Cells in Liquid
Imaging wet samples with CLEM, which eliminates the need for drying or freezing.
- Gold Nanoparticles of Different Sizes in Liquid
Gold nanoparticles were deposited on an E-chip. The solvent was allowed to evaporate and the presence of gold nanoparticles on the silicon nitride window was confirmed using scanning TEM.
- Live Yeast Cells in Liquid: Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)
Imaged without freezing or plastic embedding.
- Moving Gold Nanoparticles (STEM)
Imaging a continuous flow of liquid and injecting reagents.
- Poseidon Select Gap Set E-chips Flow Characterisation
Rapidly exchange liquid within the sample chamber, in around 1 minute.
- Polyvinyl Pyridine Coated Gold Nanorods in Liquid
Gold nanorods encapsulated in a layer of polyvinyl pyridine (PVP) were imaged in a 150 nm layer of water with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).
- Visualising Viral Assemblies
Imaging rotavirus particles in solution. The first high resolution, 3D reconstructions of biological assemblies from single particles entirely in liquid.
- In Situ EELS and EFTEM Analysis
The capabilities of EELS in liquid, evaluating core and low-loss areas of the EELS spectrum as a function of liquid thickness.
- Liposomes in Liquid (TEM)
Imaging functional liposome nanoparticles in situ within liquid.
- EDS and EELS analysis in the TEM
Exploring the capabilities of the method.
- Glioblastoma Cells – Imaging of Nanoparticle Movement in Real-Time
Studying interactions between gold nanorods and glioblastoma stem cells using in situ liquid TEM.
- Carbon Nanotube Degradation in Macrophage Cells
Studying degradation mechanisms, to understand carbon nanotube breakdown by living organisms.
- Automotive Fuel Cells – Studying Degradation Processes
Observing the effects of Ostwald ripening and coalescence.
- Lithiation and Delithiation in Batteries
Nanoscale observation of battery materials within the electron microscope.
- Li-ion Batteries: – Resolving Lithium Deposition Processes
Li anode incorporation insecondary batteries has two problems: the formation of unstable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) and dendrites, which can cause short circuits.
- Dynamic Imaging and Elemental Analysis of Nanostructures in Liquid
Understanding the liquid-phase nanocrystal growth mechanism.
- Batteries: In Situ Lithium Dendrite Deposition
Simultaneously acquiring correlative electrochemical results, for quantification of process reversibility and electrochemical cell capacity, both key parameters of battery performance.
Case Study: In Situ Lithium Dendrite Deposition
A key challenge in lithium-ion battery development is how to minimise the formation of lithium dendrites on the electrode surface after repeated charge/discharge cycles. Areas of “dead” lithium no longer contribute to ion transport. This reduces battery capacity and increases the likelihood of a short circuit between anode and cathode.
Researchers used the Protochips Poseidon Select to observe the charge/discharge process of lithium-ion batteries in solution using scanning TEM (STEM). A series of real-time images of the working electrode was acquired, while cycling the electrochemical potential of the cell from 0 to -4 volts.
At the start of the first cycle, the surface of the platinum working electrode was pristine, with the lithium fully dissolved in the electrolyte solution. As the battery was charged, lithium deposits appeared on the surface of the working electrode. Surface roughening was observed, due to the uneven nature of the deposits. Discharging the battery during the first cycle reduced the lithium on the electrode surface, but the lithium dendrites remained on the surface of the electrode and did not redissolve in the electrolyte.
After more charge cycles, the electrochemical cell became more and more irreversible, with more lithium dendrites and “dead” regions in the STEM images. Characteristic peaks at -2 and -2.5 volts could be seen in the CV curves, indicating alloying between the platinum electrode and the lithium in the electrolyte.
The Poseidon Select enabled simultaneous imaging and electrochemical data collection, to successfully image the formation of lithium dendrites during battery charge/discharge cycles.
In-Situ TEM: The New Frontier for Liquid Chemistry
Watch a 1 hour recorded webinar about how leading scientists in battery research and functional materials are using liquid cell TEM:
Mimicking the Human Body
1 hour recorded webinar about how researchers are using liquid cell EM to study complex transitions in biological samples in their natural, hydrated state: